Dog Articles, Treatments

Metronidazole (Flagyl®)

Overview

Metronidazole has several uses in veterinary medicine.  It is effective against Giardia parasites.  It is employed in the treatment of many forms of diarrhea, including diarrhea caused by colitis and inflammatory bowel disease.   It aids in the treatment of certain liver disorders.  Metronidazole is an antibiotic that may be used in the treatment of certain types of bacterial infections.

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Amoxicillin, Clavamox®, and other Penicillins

Overview

Penicillin was the first clinically applied antibiotic in medicine, and compounds related to it are in wide use today.  Amoxicillin and Clavamox® (also known as amoxicillin-clavulanate or Augmentin®) are frequently prescribed for home use in cats and dogs. The two medicines are related.  Clavamox® is more potent than amoxicillin.

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Insulin

Overview

Insulin is a drug that is used in the treatment of diabetes in dogs and cats. It requires special handling and storage, it must be given by injection, and it carries the risk of overdose. Despite these disadvantages, insulin is the most commonly used drug in the treatment of diabetes. Without insulin, most diabetic cats and dogs will suffer severe or fatal complications of the disease.

Form and Storage of Insulin

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PPA (Phenylpropanolamine)

Overview

PPA is used in the treatment of hormone-based urinary incontinence in dogs.  In most cases, incontinence resolves for a period of 8 – 24 hours after administration.  PPA works by increasing the muscle tone of the urethra.

Form

PPA is administered orally.  Palatable pills are readily available.

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Levothyroxine (Soloxine® and Thyro-Tabs®)

Overview

Levothyroxine is used to treat hypothyroidism in dogs. It works by supplementing the dog’s production of thyroid hormone. The effect is temporary. Most dogs with hypothyroidism require lifelong treatment with levothyroxine.

Form

Levothyroxine most commonly is administered as an oral pill once or twice daily.

Side Effects

Side effects of levothryoxine are rare but can include gastrointestinal upset.

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Tetracycline (Panmycin®)

Overview

Tetracycline is an antibiotic that is prescribed to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

Form

Tetracycline is administered orally.   It is available as a pill or a liquid suspension. Compounding pharmacies may be able to produce palatable formulations of tetracycline to ease administration to pets.

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Enalapril (Enacard®) and Benazepril (Lotensin®)

Overview

Enalapril and benazepril are related members of a class of drugs called ACE inhibitors. They have similar effects and uses in veterinary medicine.

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Albon® (Sulfadimethoxine)

Overview

In veterinary medicine, sulfadimethoxine is used primarily to treat coccidia (Isospora) in puppies and kittens.  Courses of sulfadimethoxine generally last from 3 to 21 days.

Sulfadimethoxine also may be used as an antibiotic, but this is not common in veterinary medicine.

Sulfadimethoxine is currently considered an inferior treatment option for coccidia.  A different drug, ponazuril, is preferred.

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Antihistamines

Overview

Antihistamines such as hydroxyzine (Atarax®), diphenhydramine (Benadryl®), and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton®) are used in veterinary medicine primarily to treat allergies that cause skin problems. Less often, they are prescribed to prevent carsickness, to treat severe allergic reactions to insect bites or stings, or as sedatives.

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Cephalosporin Antibiotics

Overview

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